Therefore exposing any DSpace metadata field in any OAI format is just a matter of modifying the corresponding output format stylesheet (This assumes the general knowledge of how XSLT works. For a tutorial, see e.g. http://www.w3schools.com/xsl/).
For example, if you have a DC field "local.note.librarian" that you want to expose in oai_dc as <dc:note> (please note that this is not a valid DC field and thus breaks compatibility), then edit oai_dc.xsl and add the following lines just above the closing tag </oai_dc:dc>:
<xsl:for-each select="doc:metadata/doc:element[@name='local']/doc:element[@name='note']/doc:element/doc:element/doc:field[@name='librarian']"> <dc:note><xsl:value-of select="." /></dc:note> </xsl:for-each>
If you need to add/remove metadata fields, you're changing the output format. Therefore it is recommended to create a new metadata format as a copy of the one you want to modify. This way the old format will remain available along with the new one and any upgrades to the original format during DSpace upgrades will not overwrite your customizations. If you need the format to have the same name as the original format (e.g. the default oai_dc format), you can create a new context in xoai.xsl containing your modified format with the original name, which will be available as /oai/context-name.