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Team members are listed on the LD4L Working Groups (LD4L 2014) page, and the team has benefited from the addition of new members including strong representation from the technical services and metadata departments of Cornell, Harvard, and Stanford.


titleFrom the 2013 LD4L proposal

SRSIS Ontology

Because no existing ontology supports the range of entities and relationship that SRSIS will encompass, we will use the Protégé ontology editor to develop a SRSIS ontology framework that reuses appropriate parts of currently available ontologies while introducing extensions and additions where necessary.  The framework will be based on and remain compatible with the existing VIVO and emerging research dataset and research resource ontology work. It will be sufficiently expressive to encompass traditional catalog metadata from Cornell, Stanford, and Harvard; the basic linked data elements described in the Stanford Linked Data Workshop Technology Plan; and the usage and other contextual elements from StackLife. The ontology will capture a series of basic concepts and be structured as modules that draw inspiration from and reuse existing ontology classes and properties where appropriate, such as the Semantic Publishing and Referencing ontologies, and that also support arbitrary system-wide refinement, including local extensions.

Ontology Team Activities, 2016 

Engaging with BIBFRAME

The LD4L ontology team spent much of 2015 engaged in the evolution of BIBFRAME, namely through the BIBFRAME discussion list and directly with the Office of Network Standards at the Library of Congress. In April Rob Sanderson submitted Analysis of the BIBFRAME Ontology for Linked Data Best Practices to the Library of Congress; the document recommends changes to BIBFRAME to better reflect best practices in the Linked Data domain so as not to marginalize the RDF data libraries contribute to the semantic web.


Efforts have been made to consider each class and property, but this ontology is largely untested. LD4L may provide revised/expanded versions in future as we identify new use cases, we begin to test the ontology with instance data, and BIBFRAME 2.0 revisions solidify. The RDF generated as an output of the project will be based on the LD4L ontology and will be made available for testing. For future consideration, there is a need to not only align the LD4L ontology with BIBFRAME 2.0, but also (we’ve had early conversations with OCLC about this), the Doremus Project (using FRBRoo), Europeana’s Data Model (EDM), and other RDF models within the bibliographic and cultural heritage domains.

Preprocessing Metadata for Richer RDF Conversions

Early experience in the project suggested preprocessing MARC data to include URIs for entities referred to records would significantly increase the value of the RDF output from the BIBFRAME converter. To date, in both the MARC specification and in cataloging practices, the use of URIs to identify entities is uneven. To this end, URIs in MARC: A Call for Best Practices was submitted to the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) discussion list in May of to spur conversation on the importance of URIs in library data and standardizing how they are stored in MARC. A number of outcomes have occurred out the document:


Because such a large portion of MARC records in libraries are provided by vendors, Nancy Lorimer has created a preliminary set of vendor specifications for enhancing MARC records. The specifications include both recommendations for the addition of URIs and for adjusting cataloging procedures to include specific fields and vocabularies that enhance the transformation into BIBFRAME. Adjustments to these specifications will be ongoing as the BIBFRAME converter is improved and modified to accommodate BIBFRAME 2.0. She and Phil Schreur will also be meeting with Casalini Libri at ALA Midwinter 2016 to discuss implementing these specifications.

Continued Work with Global URIs

In the fall of 2015 Linked Data for Libraries (LD4L) hosted a conversation with members of the CONSER, VIVO, and ISSN communities to discuss global URIs for serials. As the provider of unique identifiers that underpin the systems currently driving much of the continuing resources ecosystem, the ISSN network brings together a wealth of domain expertise and an established network of stakeholders. ISSN is well positioned to have a significant role in providing global URIs and linked data for serials.