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Comment: Better instructions for install pgcrypto in separate schema


  1. Create the DSpace user. This needs to be the same user that Tomcat (or Jetty etc.) will run as. e.g. as root run:

    Code Block
    useradd -m dspace

  2. Download the latest DSpace release. There are two version available with each release of DSpace: (dspace-n.x-release. and dspace-n.x-src-release.zzz); you only need to choose one. If you want a copy of all underlying Java source code, you should download the dspace-n.x-src-release.xxxWithin each version, you have a choice of compressed file format. Choose the one that best fits your environment.
    1. Alternatively, you may choose to check out the latest release from the DSpace GitHub Repository.  In this case, you'd be checking out the full Java source code.  You'd also want to be sure to checkout the appropriate tag or branch. For more information on using / developing from the GitHub Repository, see: Development with Git
  3. Unpack the DSpace software. After downloading the software, based on the compression file format, choose one of the following methods to unpack your software:
    1. Zip file. If you downloaded do the following:

      Code Block

    2. .gz file. If you downloaded dspace-6.x-release.tar.gz do the following:

      Code Block
      gunzip -c dspace-6.x-release.tar.gz | tar -xf -

    3. .bz2 file. If you downloaded do the following:

      Code Block
      bunzip2 | tar -xf -

      For ease of reference, we will refer to the location of this unzipped version of the DSpace release as [dspace-source] in the remainder of these instructions. After unpacking the file, the user may wish to change the ownership of the dspace-6.x-release to the "dspace" user. (And you may need to change the group).

  4. Database Setup
    • Also see "Relational Database" prerequisite notes above
    • PostgreSQL:
      • A PostgreSQL JDBC driver is configured as part of the default DSpace build. You no longer need to copy any PostgreSQL jars to get PostgreSQL installed.
      • Create a dspace database user (this user can have any name, but we'll assume you name them "dspace"). This is entirely separate from the dspace operating-system user created above:

        Code Block
        createuser --username=postgres --no-superuser --pwprompt dspace

        You will be prompted (twice) for a password for the new dspace user.  Then you'll be prompted for the password of the PostgreSQL superuser (postgres).

      • Create a dspace database, owned by the dspace PostgreSQL user. Similar to the previous step, this can only be done by a "superuser" account in PostgreSQL (e.g. postgres):

        Code Block
        createdb --username=postgres --owner=dspace --encoding=UNICODE dspace

        You will be prompted for the password of the PostgreSQL superuser (postgres).

      • Finally, you MUST enable the pgcrypto extension on your new dspace database.  Again, this can only be enabled by a "superuser" account (e.g. postgres)

        Code Block
        # Login to the database as a superuser, and enable the pgcrypto extension on this database
        psql --username=postgres dspace -c "CREATE EXTENSION pgcrypto;"

        The "CREATE EXTENSION" command should return with no result if it succeeds. If it fails or throws an error, it is likely you are missing the required pgcrypto extension (see Database Prerequisites above).

        • Alternative method: How to enable pgcrypto via a separate database schema. While the above method of enabling pgcrypto is perfectly fine for the majority of users, there may be some scenarios where a database administrator would prefer to install extensions into a database schema that is separate from the DSpace tables. Developers also may wish to install pgcrypto into a separate schema if they plan to "clean" (recreate) their development database frequently. Keeping extensions in a separate schema from the DSpace tables will ensure developers would NOT have to continually re-enable the extension each time you run a "./dspace database clean". If you wish to install pgcrypto in a separate schema here's how to do that:

          Code Block
          # Login to the database as a superuser
          psql --username=postgres dspace
          # Create a new schema in this database named "extensions" (or whatever you want to name it)
          CREATE SCHEMA extensions;
          # Enable this extension in this new schema
          CREATE EXTENSION pgcrypto SCHEMA extensions;
          # DetermineGrant whatrights yourto database "search_path" is set to
          # (the search_path is where your database will look for extensions)
          SHOW search_path;
          # Update your databasecall functions in the extensions schema to your dspace user
          GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA extensions TO dspace;
          # Append "extensions" on the current session's "search_path" to(if also search the new "extensions" schema. 
          # You are just appending it on the end of the existing comma-separated list.
          ALTER DATABASE dspace SET search_path TO [existing-search_path-list],extensions;
          # Grant rights to call functions in the extensions schema to your dspace user
          GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA extensions TO dspaceit doesn't already exist in search_path)
          # The "search_path" config is the list of schemas that Postgres will use
          SELECT set_config('search_path',current_setting('search_path') || ',extensions',false) WHERE current_setting('search_path') !~ '(^|,)extensions(,|$)';
          # Verify the current session's "search_path" and make sure it's correct
          SHOW search_path;
          # Now, update the "dspace" Database to use the same "search_path" (for all future sessions) as we've set for this current session (i.e. via set_config() above)
          ALTER DATABASE dspace SET search_path FROM CURRENT;

    • Oracle:
      • Setting up DSpace to use Oracle is a bit different now. You will need still need to get a copy of the Oracle JDBC driver, but instead of copying it into a lib directory you will need to install it into your local Maven repository. (You'll need to download it first from this location: Run the following command (all on one line):

        Code Block
        mvn install:install-file

      • You need to compile DSpace with an Oracle driver (ojdbc6.jar) corresponding to your Oracle version - update the version in [dspace-source]/pom.xml  E.g.:

        Code Block

      • Create a database for DSpace. Make sure that the character set is one of the Unicode character sets. DSpace uses UTF-8 natively, and it is required that the Oracle database use the same character set. Create a user account for DSpace (e.g. dspace) and ensure that it has permissions to add and remove tables in the database.
      • NOTE: You will need to ensure the proper db.* settings are specified in your local.cfg file (see next step), as the defaults for all of these settings assuming a PostgreSQL database backend.

        Code Block
        db.url = jdbc:oracle:thin:@host:port/SID
        # e.g. db.url = jdbc:oracle:thin:@//localhost:1521/xe
        # NOTE: in db.url, SID is the SID of your database defined in tnsnames.ora
        # the default Oracle port is 1521
        # You may also use a full SID definition, e.g.
        # db.url = jdbc:oracle:thin:@(description=(address_list=(address=(protocol=TCP)(host=localhost)(port=1521)))(connect_data=(service_name=DSPACE)))
        # Oracle driver and dialect
        db.driver = oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver
        db.dialect = org.hibernate.dialect.Oracle10gDialect
        # Specify DB username, password and schema to use
        db.username =
        db.password =
        db.schema = ${db.username}
        # For Oracle, schema is equivalent to the username of your database account,
        # so this may be set to ${db.username} in most scenarios



      • Later, during the Maven build step, don't forget to specify mvn package

  5. Initial Configuration (local.cfg):  Create your own [dspace-source]/dspace/config/local.cfg configuration file (you may wish to simply copy the provided [dspace-source]/dspace/config/local.cfg.EXAMPLE). This local.cfg file can be used to store any configuration changes that you wish to make which are local to your installation (see local.cfg configuration file documentation). ANY setting may be copied into this local.cfg file from the dspace.cfg or any other *.cfg file in order to override the default setting (see note below).  For the initial installation of DSpace, there are some key settings you'll likely want to override, those are provided in the [dspace-source]/dspace/config/local.cfg.EXAMPLE. (NOTE: Settings followed with an asterisk (*) are highly recommended, while all others are optional during initial installation and may be customized at a later time)
    • dspace.dir* - must be set to the [dspace] (installation) directory  (NOTE: On Windows be sure to use forward slashes for the directory path!  For example: "C:/dspace" is a valid path for Windows.)
    • dspace.hostname - fully-qualified domain name of web server (or "localhost" if you just want to run DSpace locally for now)
    • dspace.baseUrl* - complete URL of this server's DSpace home page (including port), but without any context eg. /xmlui, /oai, etc.
    • - "Proper" name of your server, e.g. "My Digital Library".
    • solr.server* - complete URL of the Solr server. DSpace makes use of Solr for indexing purposes.  
    • default.language - Default language for all metadata values (defaults to "en_US")
    • db.url* - The full JDBC URL to your database (examples are provided in the local.cfg.EXAMPLE)
    • db.driver* - Which database driver to use, based on whether you are using PostgreSQL or Oracle
    • db.dialect* - Which database dialect to use, based on whether you are using PostgreSQL or Oracle
    • db.username* - the database username used in the previous step.
    • db.password* - the database password used in the previous step.
    • db.schema* - the database scheme to use (examples are provided in the local.cfg.EXAMPLE)
    • mail.server - fully-qualified domain name of your outgoing mail server.
    • mail.from.address - the "From:" address to put on email sent by DSpace.
    • - mailbox for feedback mail.
    • mail.admin - mailbox for DSpace site administrator.
    • mail.alert.recipient - mailbox for server errors/alerts (not essential but very useful!)
    • mail.registration.notify- mailbox for emails when new users register (optional)

      titleYour local.cfg file can override ANY settings from other *.cfg files in DSpace

      The provided local.cfg.EXAMPLE only includes a small subset of the configuration settings available with DSpace. It provides a good starting point for your own local.cfg file.

      However, you should be aware that ANY configuration can now be copied into your local.cfg to override the default settings.  This includes ANY of the settings/configurations in:

      • The primary dspace.cfg file ([dspace]/config/dspace.cfg)
      • Any of the module configuration files ([dspace]/config/modules/*.cfg files)

      Individual settings may also be commented out or removed in your local.cfg, in order to re-enable default settings.

      See the Configuration Reference section for more details.

  6. DSpace Directory: Create the directory for the DSpace installation (i.e. [dspace]). As root (or a user with appropriate permissions), run:

    Code Block
    mkdir [dspace]
    chown dspace [dspace]

    (Assuming the dspace UNIX username.)

  7. Build the Installation Package: As the dspace UNIX user, generate the DSpace installation package.

    Code Block
    cd [dspace-source]
    mvn package

    titleBuilding with Oracle Database Support

    Without any extra arguments, the DSpace installation package is initialized for PostgreSQL. If you want to use Oracle instead, you should build the DSpace installation package as follows:
    mvn package

    titleEnabling and building the Mirage 2 theme (for XMLUI)

    Mirage 2 is a responsive theme for the XML User Interface, added as a new feature in DSpace 5. It has not yet replaced the Mirage 1 theme as the XMLUI default theme.
    The Mirage 2 build requires git to be installed on your server. Install git before attempting the Mirage 2 build. 

    To enable Mirage 2, add the following to the  <themes>  section of  [dspace-source]/dspace/config/xmlui.xconf , replacing the currently active theme:

        <theme name="Mirage 2" regex=".*" path="Mirage2/" />

    It is important to do this before executing the maven build.

    Mirage 2 is not yet activated in the default "mvn package" build. To include it as part of the build, run:


        mvn package -Dmirage2.on=true

    The speed of this specific step of the build can be increased by installing local copies of the specific dependencies required for building Mirage 2. The Mirage 2 developer documentation provides detailed instructions for these installations. After the installation of these dependencies, you can choose to run:

    mvn package -Dmirage2.on=true -Dmirage2.deps.included=false

    Warning: The Mirage 2 build process should NOT be run as "root". It must be run as a non-root user. For more information see: Mirage 2 Common Build Issues

  8. Install DSpace: As the dspace UNIX user, install DSpace to [dspace]:

    Code Block
    cd [dspace-source]/dspace/target/dspace-installer
    ant fresh_install


    To see a complete list of build targets, run: ant help The most likely thing to go wrong here is the test of your database connection. See the Common Problems Section below for more details.

  9. Decide which DSpace Web Applications you want to install. DSpace comes with a variety of web applications (in [dspace]/webapps), each of which provides a different "interface" to your DSpace.  Which ones you install is up to you, but there are a few that we highly recommend (see below):

    1. "xmlui" = This is the XML-based User Interface (XMLUI), based on Apache Cocoon. It comes with a variety of out-of-the-box themes, including Mirage 1 (the default) and Mirage 2 (based on Bootstrap). Between the "xmlui" and "jspui", you likely only need to choose one.

    2. "jspui" = This is the JSP-based User Interface (JSPUI), which is based on BootstrapBetween the "xmlui" and "jspui", you likely only need to choose one.

    3. "solr" (required) = This is Apache Solr web application, which is used by the "xmlui" and "jspui" (for search & browse functionality), as well as the OAI-PMH interface. It must be installed in support of either UI.

    4. "oai" = This is the DSpace OAI interface. It allows for Metadata and Bitstream (content-file) harvesting, supporting OAI-PMH (Protocol for Metadata Harvest) and OAI-ORE (Object Reuse and Exchange) protocols
    5. "rdf" = This is the DSpace RDF interface supporting Linked (Open) Data.
    6. "rest" = This is the DSpace REST API
    7. "sword" = This is the DSpace SWORDv1 interface. More info on SWORD protocol and its usage.
    8. "swordv2" = This is the DSpace SWORDv2 interface. More info on SWORD protocol and its usage.
  10. Deploy Web Applications:
    Please note that in the first instance you should refer to the appropriate documentation for your Web Server of choice. The following instructions are meant as a handy guide. You have two choices or techniques for having Tomcat/Jetty/Resin serve up your web applications: 
    • Technique A. Tell your Tomcat/Jetty/Resin installation where to find your DSpace web application(s). As an example, in the directory [tomcat]/conf/Catalina/localhost you could add files similar to the following (but replace [dspace]with your installation location):

      Code Block
      titleDEFINE A CONTEXT FOR DSpace XML User Interface: xmlui.xml
      <?xml version='1.0'?>

      Code Block
      titleDEFINE A CONTEXT PATH FOR DSpace JSP User Interface: jspui.xml
      <?xml version='1.0'?>

      Code Block
      titleDEFINE A CONTEXT PATH FOR DSpace Solr index: solr.xml
      <?xml version='1.0'?>

      Code Block
      titleDEFINE A CONTEXT PATH FOR DSpace OAI User Interface: oai.xml
      <?xml version='1.0'?>

      Code Block
      <?xml version='1.0'?>

      The name of the file (not including the suffix ".xml") will be the name of the context, so for example xmlui.xml defines the context at http://host:8080/xmlui.  To define the root context (http://host:8080/), name that context's file ROOT.xml.

      titleTomcat Context Settings in Production

      The above Tomcat Context Settings show adding the following to each <Context> element:

      reloadable="true" cachingAllowed="false"

      These settings are extremely useful to have when you are first getting started with DSpace, as they let you tweak the DSpace XMLUI (XSLTs or CSS) or JSPUI (JSPs) and see your changes get automatically reloaded by Tomcat (without having to restart Tomcat).   However, it is worth noting that the Apache Tomcat documentation recommends Production sites leave the default values in place (reloadable="false" cachingAllowed="true"), as allowing Tomcat to automatically reload all changes may result in "significant runtime overhead". 

      It is entirely up to you whether to keep these Tomcat settings in place.  We just recommend beginning with them, so that you can more easily customize your site without having to require a Tomcat restart.  Smaller DSpace sites may not notice any performance issues with keeping these settings in place in Production.  Larger DSpace sites may wish to ensure that Tomcat performance is more streamlined.

    • Technique B. Simple and complete. You copy only (or all) of the DSpace Web application(s) you wish to use from the [dspace]/webapps directory to the appropriate directory in your Tomcat/Jetty/Resin installation. For example:
      cp -R [dspace]/webapps/* [tomcat]/webapps* (This will copy all the web applications to Tomcat).
      cp -R [dspace]/webapps/jspui [tomcat]/webapps* (This will copy only the jspui web application to Tomcat.)
  11. Administrator Account:  Create an initial administrator account from the command line:

    Code Block
    [dspace]/bin/dspace create-administrator

  12. Initial Startup!  Now the moment of truth! Start up (or restart) Tomcat/Jetty/Resin. Visit the base URL(s) of your server, depending on which DSpace web applications you want to use. You should see the DSpace home page. Congratulations! Base URLs of DSpace Web Applications:


  1. Download the CNRI Handle Software: In the tarball you'll find an INSTALL.txt with installation instructions -- follow it.
  2. Create the following two files in /hs/srv_1.


    log4j.rootCategory=INFO, A1
    log4j.appender.A1.layout.ConversionPattern=%d %-5p %c @ %m%n


    Change the path in the third line, if necessary.



    dspace.handle.endpoint1 =


    If you are using XMLUI take a look in [dspace-install]/config/dspace.cfg, change the URL above to the value of your dspace.url and add /handleresolver to the end of it. If you are using JSPUI take a look in [dspace-install]/config/dspace.cfg, change the URL above to the value of your dspace.url and add /json/hdlresolver to the end of it. If you run more than one DSpace Installation, you may add more DSpace Endpoints.  Just increase the number at the end of the key for each:  endpoint2, endpoint3....

  3. Edit the file /hs/srv_1/config.dct to include the following lines in the "server_config" clause:


    "storage_type" = "CUSTOM"
    "storage_class" = "org.dspace.handle.MultiRemoteDSpaceRepositoryHandlePlugin"

  4. Copy /hs/hsj-7.3.1/bin/hdl-server to /hs/srv_1/start-hdl-server.
  5. Edit /hs/srv_1/start-hdl-server:
    1. Find the last line that begins with HDLHOME=
    2. Below that line add the following one: HDLHOME="/hs/hsj-7.3.1/"
    3. Find a line that contains exec java ... net.handle.server.Main ...
    4. Add "-Dlog4j.configuration=file:///hs/srv_1/ -Ddspace.handle.plugin.configuration=/hs/srv_1/handle-dspace-plugin.cfg" right in front of net.handle.server.Main.
  6. If your handle server is running, stop it.
  7. From now on you should start this handle server using /hs/srv_1/start-hdl-server